May 18, 2022


Skillful Technology Connoisseurs

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This Colossal Vacuum Tube Computer Plays A Mean Game Of Pong

It doesn’t happen often that we report on new vacuum tube based computer designs. Today however, we’re pleased to introduce to you the Fast Reliable Electronic Digital Dot Computer, or Fred.Computer for short. It’s the brainchild of [Mike] who also brought us ENA, which we featured earlier.

Fred is a new design that reuses the parts that made up ENA. It has an 8-bit CPU, 16 bytes of RAM, 256 bytes of NVRAM, and runs at a clock speed of 11.3 kHz. With its 560 tubes drawing a total supply current of about 200 A it also provides a fair bit of heating to [Mike]’s study. The main logic is implemented through NOR gates, built from 6N3P dual-triode tubes sourced from Eastern Europe. These NOR gates are combined into more complex structures like latches, registers and even a complete ALU. A total of sixteen machine code instructions can be used to write programs; clever design allows Fred to perform 16, 32 or even 64-bit calculations with its 8-bit ALU.

A PCB with many reed relays
Need some RAM? There’s sixteen bytes right here.

An interesting addition is a new RAM design based on reed relays. [Mike] realised that relays are actually very similar to digital transmission gates and can therefore be used to make a simple static RAM cell. If you thought relays were too slow for RAM cells, think again: these reed relays can toggle at a mind-boggling 700 Hz, making them more than fast enough for Fred.

The main I/O device is a console that contains several pushbuttons as well as a 12 x 8 LED display. All of this makes Fred a fully-functional general-purpose computer that’s even capable of playing Pong (video, embedded below). [Mike]’s website is full of interesting detail on all aspects of vacuum tube computer design, and makes delightful reading for anyone tempted by the idea of building their own.

Can’t get enough of vacuum tube computers? Have a look at this 1-bit MC14500 implementation, marvel at this modern interpretation of an adding machine, or find out how IBM designed its logic in the 1950s.